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The European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) located in Darmstadt, Germany operates spacecraft on behalf of the European Space Agency (ESA) and maintains the ground facilities and expertise to both ESA and other institutional and commercial customers. The Navigation Support Office is part of the European Space Agency’s Space Operations Centre (ESA/ESOC). For the last decade, the Navigation Support Office has been involved in activities related to the provision of Real Time GNSS augmentation services. The motivation for these activities is to support a number of ESA objectives, including:

  • Orbit Determination support for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) missions using GNSS
  • Development and validation of operational capabilities, with an emphasis on Galileo
  • GNSS  Infrastructure   Development   including  advanced  techniques  for  better  exploitation  of European GNSS (Galileo and EGNOS)
  • Research and Development and support to European industry through technology transfer
The concept adopted is the generation of precise GNSS orbits using state of the art batch orbit estimation software. The predicted orbits, accurate to a few cm, are used in a Kalman Filter, operating in real time, to estimate precise corrections to the satellite clocks from GNSS observations received from a global Real Time receiver network. The orbit and clock products can then be made available to users with a latency of 3-4 sec from the observation epoch.

The software architecture is modelled after concepts used in satellite control centres with the Real Time observation and product streams treated in the same way as satellite telemetry data. A concept of circular History Files has been developed, combining seamless Real Time processing and retrieval capabilities, with the ability to archive data for historical playback. Extensive display and visualisation capabilities are also available.

Participation in the International GNSS Service (IGS) Real Time Pilot Project has enabled validation of the ESOC software, with continuous operation and monitoring of two solution chains, starting in 2008. In addition, as the IGS Real Time Analysis Centre Coordinator, ESOC has developed and operates a Real Time combination solution, combining solution streams from multiple sources. This is one of the offerings of the IGS Real Time Service, which was formally launched in April 2013.

This article focuses on the ESOC experiences in Real Time processing, discussing results and challenges from the evolving GNSS services.

GNSS Infrastructure

The ESOC software infrastructure has been modelled, as already mentioned, after Real Time satellite control systems and includes many of the elements for data processing, archiving and visualisation that are common to such systems. In particular, it implements a specially designed circular filing system for streaming data, allowing maintenance-free operations for processing and archiving of data and products, and seamless transitions from historical to live data processing. Additionally, it includes a highly sophisticated job scheduler for automating operations and an integrated Events and Alarms monitoring system.

The software subsystems belong to one of three functional categories:

Infrastructure Software is written in C++. The main components are middleware elements for History Filing and Event Logging and a Job Scheduling application. All middleware elements have C++, Java and FORTRAN interfaces.

Algorithmic Software is written in FORTRAN 90, C++ or Java. It incorporates applications for Real Time and Batch data processing and estimation and for generation of products and comparison statistics between results sets.

Visualisation Software is entirely written in Java for portability. It includes Real Time graphical and alphanumeric display applications and the Graphical User Interface.

Figure 1: Real Time Processing Desktop and Sample Displays

Figure 1 shows the integrated desktop which provides all the functions for the software configuration, monitoring and control. Also shown are example graphical and alphanumeric displays. The integrated desktop combines the Job Scheduler display (left side) with the Events display (right), allowing the operator to easily monitor the status of all running batch and real time applications.

The Job Scheduler is configured to submit all batch jobs at pre-defined times or intervals, and to monitor the Real Time applications. The batch orbit determination function is typically executed every two hours and includes jobs for screening and processing observations from up to 80 International GNSS Service (IGS) stations. The predicted orbits from these runs are updated to provide the most recent information to the Real Time estimation.

The Job Scheduler also acts as a watchdog to ensure that all Real Time processes (resident tasks) are continuously running. Any abnormal termination is detected and the relevant task is restarted automatically. This can also guard against hardware failures, since tasks can be configured to run on more than one hardware node and will be restarted on a backup node if the prime fails.

Resident tasks are used for processing and filing observation and broadcast ephemeris messages and for performing the Real Time Estimation. The Real Time Estimation processes phase and pseudo range observations that are arriving at the rate of 1 Hz and screens the data to detect outliers and cycle slips. It uses a Kalman filter to estimate multi-GNSS satellite and receiver clock corrections, tropospheric zenith delays at each observing site and phase biases for each satellite-receiver link. The estimation interval is user-configurable and is currently set at 5 seconds. The estimated satellite clock corrections and predicted orbit information are sent to an output stream and disseminated to users in the form of RTCM SSR messages.

The software capabilities were originally designed in order to support the GPS constellation. These capabilities have now been extended to support all the available GNSS constellations, with emphasis on Galileo. In addition to the multi-constellation, the capability of multi-frequency processing has also been added.

A network status monitoring display in the form of a world map (see Figure 2) allows the operator to gain an overview of the network data flow. Station and satellite icons are colour coded to reflect the health of the live data links. It is also possible to see the number of live links to each station or from each satellite and the data latency and percentage availability of the observations from each station.

Figure 2: GNSS Network Status Monitoring Display (GPS-only)

Figure 2. GNSS Network Status Monitoring Display (GPS-only)

To supplement the investment in software, ESOC has maintained and expanded the capabilities of its receiver network. This takes advantage of the existence of a number of ESA-operated satellite tracking sites with the necessary infrastructure (power, communications, atomic frequency standards, concrete pillar for mounting of the GNSS antennas) to host GNSS equipment with minimal additional operating costs. All ESA sites are now equipped with multi-GNSS capability receivers and associated antennas.

Additional sites are also being procured with the objective of creating an independent network of around 30 sites with global coverage.

Real Time Activities and Ongoing Projects

The investment in GNSS software, equipment and infrastructure has enabled ESA to participate in a number of projects with institutional and commercial partners.

As a major contributor to the IGS, ESOC has been a strong supporter of the IGS Real Time Pilot Project. Since the original call for participation, and through to the establishment of the recently launched (April 2013) IGS Real Time Service (RTS), ESA has played a leading role by assuming the roles of Real Time Analysis Centre, data provider and Analysis Centre Coordinator. In the latter role, ESOC is responsible for the generation of the RTS products (see and has been generating and disseminating IGS Real Time Combination streams after processing the Real Time solutions from up to ten Analysis Centres. Included in these solutions are two streams generated by the ESOC Real Time Analysis Centre. One of these uses orbit information generated by the NAPEOS software (ESOC’s Navigation Support Office standard SW package for precise orbit determination), which provides orbit updates every 2 hours (see above). The second ESOC solution stream uses the IGS rapid orbit product, which is updated every 6 hours.

Stemming from the recognition that Real Time services rely on the development of standards and data formats, ESOC has been instrumental in aligning the interests of the IGS community with those of the RTCM (Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services). ESOC, along with NRCan, represents the IGS at RTCM meetings. Over the course of the last 4-5 years, this forum, which brings together GNSS service providers, users and receiver manufacturers, has made significant progress in agreeing standards for:

  • Real Time orbit and clock correction messages in state space representation (SSR) format
  • new multi-GNSS standards for Real Time high precision observations and for broadcast ephemeris dissemination
On the other hand, ESOC represents the RTCM at the Galileo Geodetic Reference Interface Working Group, a group of experts advising the EC on exploitation of Galileo services for the geodetic community.

In its mandate to assist European Industry, ESOC has been working with Fugro for software development related to the implementation of high precision augmentation services. The Fugro G2 service, providing augmentation products for GPS and GLONASS, uses software developed by ESA and has been operational since early 2009. The service is being extended to include Galileo, with successful trials already demonstrated by Fugro.

Capabilities and Performance

In this section a snapshot of results will be presented to show the range of capabilities of the ESOC’s Navigation Support Office infrastructure.

In terms of the IGS RTS, Figure 3 shows the performance of the combination solution produced by ESOC from the results of the contributing Analysis Centres. The plots show daily clock standard deviations and 1-D RMS orbit differences between the combination solution and the IGS rapid solution. It can be seen that the clock results are of the order of 0.1 ns and the orbit differences at the level of 30-40 mm. The advantage of the combination is the ability to identify and eliminate outliers, by examining the differences between the contributing Analysis Centre solutions. It can be seen that the outliers affecting the early results have been eliminated, with very stable results since around GPS week 1650.

The monitoring of the RTS clock solutions in the PPP (Precise Point Positioning) domain is performed by BKG (see Figure 4 shows the kinematic PPP performance of one of the ESOC solutions over an interval of 24 hours. It can be seen that accuracies at the decimetre level can be achieved.

Figure 3: Real Time Service Orbit and Clock Comparisons against IGS Rapid Products

Figure 4: Example of Kinematic PPP Performance of ESOC Solution

Figure 4. Example of Kinematic PPP Performance of ESOC Solution

To highlight the importance of combining computational and visualisation capabilities, the plots in Figure 5 show the estimated satellite clock behaviour of GPS satellite G01. Since the middle of January 2013, the satellite clock started exhibiting a series of clock jumps with a magnitude of 3 ns. This pattern (Figure 5, left plot) was observed once per orbit, with clock jump events every 12 hours. The problem was resolved on 6 February, with the satellite being taken out of service and reconfigured (Figure 5, right plot). The ESOC capabilities allow for the detection and monitoring of such events in Real Time, creating the possibilities for a timely response (e.g. by suppressing the problematic satellite) to ensure the service is not degraded.

Figure 5: GPS PRN-1 Anomalous Clock Behaviour

Figure 6: Signal Drop from Block IIA GPS Satellit

The software visualisation capabilities also allow the possibility to identify and visualise signal problems with the satellites. In the example in Figure 6, GPS satellite G30 is seen to be tracked by 14 receivers at 19:43:19 on 11 April 2009. The live links are identified by the light blue lines radiating from the satellite. In the next snapshot, at 19:44:35, all14 receivers appear to have lost the measurements from this satellite, as the grey lines indicate geometric visibility but no measurements arriving at the stations. At the same times the receivers are continuing to track other satellites. This behaviour has been observed a number of times and is known to affect only the Block IIA range of GPS satellites. A loss of measurements for a period of 1-2 minutes is typically observed.


Latest improvements of ESOC’s Navigation Support Office SW provide full multi-frequency and multi- constellation processing capability.

The IGS Real Time service is provided as a routine operational service since 1 April 2013, enabling a kinematic Precise Point Position solution at accuracy levels in the 10-20 cm range.


ESOC is working with a large number of partners and Real Time Analysis Centres. In particular we would like to thank the following:

BKG, NRCan, GFZ, CNES, DLR, GMV, JPL, IGS Governing Board, Fugro, GEO++, TUW, WHU, Geoscience

Australia, NGS, UPC.


Werner Enderle(1) , Loukis Agrotis(2) , Rene Zandbergen(1) , Mark van Kints(3), Jens Martin(4)


(1)   European Space Operations Centre, Robert-Bosch-Str 5, 64293 Darmstadt, Germany

(2)   Symban Ltd at European Space Operations Centre, Robert-Bosch-Str 5, 64293 Darmstadt, Germany

(3)   GMV at European Space Operations Centre, Robert-Bosch-Str 5, 64293 Darmstadt, Germany

(4)     Telespazio VEGA Deutschland GmbH at European Space Operations Centre, Robert-Bosch-Str 5, 64293 Darmstadt, Germany